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Civil Law in Quebec

There are two major categories of laws in any given society: civil laws and criminal laws.

Civil law deals with the relationship between people and people’s property while criminal laws deal with what the society considers to be an illegal act and thus punishable by law.

In the Province of Quebec, the civil law is codified in the Civil Code of Quebec governing all aspects of our lives such as name, domicile, succession, family relationship, contracts, mandates and so on. 

What does the civil law regulate?

Civil laws regulate all aspects of our private lives along with our relationship with others.

You can think of the following areas as some example:

  1. Laws applicable to you as a person such your name, your legal capacity, birth death
  2. Laws applicable to your family and children
  3. Laws applicable to your property such as your assets and liabilities
  4. Laws applicable to contracts and your commercial dealings
  5. Laws applicable to your obligations as a subject of the law towards others

What is the civil law history of Quebec?

In the Province of Quebec, the civil laws governing the relationship between individuals and each person are inherited from the French.

In fact, the Quebec’s legal system was established in 1663 when the French established themselves here.

The French had their laws codified.

This paved the way for the Civil Code of Lower Canada to be drafted inspired by the Napoleonic Code. Eventually, the Civil Code of Lower Canada was replaced by the new Civil Code of Quebec in 1994.

Civil laws of Quebec: Civil Code of Quebec

In the Province of Quebec, the civil laws are primarily codified in the Civil Code of Quebec

The Civil Code of Quebec is an extensive legislation dealing with all aspects of the civil law in Quebec and is composed of ten chapters:

  1. Persons
  2. The Family
  3. Successions
  4. Property
  5. Obligations
  6. Prior Claims and Hypothecs
  7. Evidence
  8. Prescription
  9. Publication of Rights
  10. Private International Law

There are 3,168 articles in the Civil Code addressing all areas of our lives.

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